How to remember something by Hedwig Von Restorff

So try to remember her name for starters!

Put simply, the Von Restorff effect states that we more easily remember things that are unusual, outstanding or out of the ordinary.

If you want to commit information to memory you need to take heed of Hedwig!

There are various ways of making things outstanding. These include:

Heightened Senses
Imagining things brighter, louder, smellier, delicious or disgusting makes them extraordinary.

Play with changes of scale or proportion, making things huge or minute. How can you Accentuate differences?

Humour relies on the juxtaposition of unexpected elements. Surreal or silly situations are memorable such as Monty Python’s or Spike Milligan’s sketches.

We are attracted and engaged by movement. Think of the difference between watching a movie compared with a photo album. How can objects interact with their environment in unexpected ways?

Sexy individuals attract our attention and stand out in our memories. Advertisers often exploit this – Sex sells!

Copy Writing with NLP


  1. The outcome of copy is to make sure that your reader does not say no.
  2. Milton Model and Presuppositions rule.
  3. Pace Pace Pace Pace Lead

Salient notes from Harlan Kilstein and his 30 day NLP Copywriting Youtube videos.

1 VAK descriptions do not work with written copy. 98% of your audience is reading to themselves so Auditory is the prime modality.

2 Visual Anchors do work so find some source of External Stimulus or Trigger ie a brilliant Image and this will invoke an involuntary Prior or Previous STATE that you want them to go into.  Give the reader what they want and use it strategically. What buying state do we want them in? What would be great universal anchors? Such as:

  • Happy families sitting around a table enjoying a meal.
  • Kids devouring a fun healthy meal.
  • Smiling faces enjoying food and a good laugh.
  • Rewarded Mums feeling proud of their decision to buy from DTTE

3 For video and audio have your own Jingle as an anchor at both the beginning and the end. What would be great universal anchors? Crowds of sports fans roaring in the background after a goal.

4 GIGO with reference to the META Model. A short version written on two hands.

  • All                                           All?
  • Should                                    What would happen if you didn’t …
  • Unspecified Verb                    How specifically?
  • Unspecified Noun                   Who or what specifically?

5 If you spot a pattern and it’s appropriate to interrupt it then:

  • Altering yours or another’s breathing pattern is a great pattern interrupt. 4-2-6-0
  • Nobody has sung “we’ll be going round the Mountain to me today”
  • Change the environment or MOVE

6 MILTON MODEL is good.

7 Presuppositions – all 32 patterns are good. Time – Before, during and after.

8 Stories are good – short stories for copy. Metaphor is brilliant.

9 Hypnosis/Language is broadly in two types:

  • Direct – not the best for hypnosis but is good for DCR (Direct Customer Response) in copy.
  • Permissive – good for hypnosis and essential for achieving RAPPORT in copy.

10 In Bedded Commands are gross in the written word but can be used elegantly in Video and Audio.

11 Pattern Interrupts

  • Written – ish but if they are attached to something shocking then if at that moment you give them something that they are not expecting it will go in at a deep level – would have like an example of this.
  • Video – good
  • Audio – good

12 Found lost horse story from Milton Erikson – on back – found its own way home.

13 Nasty boss story – anchored a missing sub-modality by singing a tune and wagging his finger.

14 You get into rapport with a complete stranger by meeting them at their bus stop and thereby getting into their heads.

15 Eyeball volleyball. When asked a question, look up, look from side to side and then look down for inspiration and guidance. Remember the three legged VAK stool.

How to learn something new


  1. To do this for real you need to take action!
  2. Stick it in your iphone calendar.
  3. Recall the stuff from memory first!

Although we don’t have switches in our backs that control our behaviour there is a useful analogy to learning. Have you ever been on a training course or read a book and left feeling inspired to make a real change in your life? Maybe you do this for a while and things are great. Then daily

life gets in the way, your switch gets re-set and you slip into your old habits. When you do any sort of learning remember to include time to review and sustain the gains that you make so that you don’t slip backwards. The ideal intervals for reviews after the leaning period, as described by Tony Buzan are:

  • 10 minutes (reinforcing the learning straight away makes for a strong foundation)
  • 24 hours
  • 1 week
  • 1 month
  • 3 months (by this time the information should be locked in long term memory)
  • perhaps 6 months as little refresher.

The great thing is that the more you learn and maintain, the easier it is to learn new things. The new knowledge can link and associate to the old.

How to retain more of what you read

HOW TO RETAIN MORE OF WHAT YOU READ is courtesy of Phil Chambers


  1. Have an outcome in mind and ask questions of yourself about why you have chosen to spend time reading and this will filter your experience.
  2. Be a critic. DRC. Emote. Again ask questions but this time of the material and the author.
  3. Create a mind map. Explain it to somebody or even teach it.

The more the brain process information, the better it sticks in your memory and the better it is understood. Back in the days before photocopiers and word processors, most large companies had typing pools. Ranks of typists would reproduce documents by copying. They were highly
skilled at rapidly and accurately retyping a document but without any understanding. The process was simply eye to hand with little going on in between. This is why coping out notes from textbooks is a highly ineffective study strategy. Many students waste hours taking notes of notes of notes with demoralising poor results.

If you process information a little deeper by approaching a text with questions in mind, you will be more engaged. You are more attuned to the reason for your reading. Certain parts of the text will have additional significance imbued to them by virtue of being relevant to your questions. The more significant something is, the more your brain pays attention to it and the easier it is to comprehend and remember.

Going deeper still: Try arguing with the author. Be a critic. Do you agree with the point of view being expounded? Why does he or she write this? Is there an ulterior motive or hidden agenda? What evidence is there? Does this conflict with other books you have read on the subject?
Challenge everything and get angry. Bringing emotion into you reading massively increases the impact of the text. If you think back to strongly remembered events in your life, they are often those times associated with powerful emotions. Your first love, times when you have been furious,
disappointed, ecstatic, awe stuck or inspired.

Creating a Mind Map involves a greater amount of processing than traditional copied notes. You are choosing key words to summarise big chunks of text, linking concepts together and are more engaged due to the use of colours and images. Memory works by association and imagination. Mind Maps utilise both of these skills to give increased recall of wide context and detail.

Have you ever faced a difficult problem or decision and asked a friend for advice, but by the time you finished explaining it, you knew the answer yourself? The act of articulating a problem crystallises it so that you can see it more clearly. The same is true of reading. Explain a book to a friend. You will find that by putting it into your own words, it will make more sense. You are taking
the ideas and making them your own – Synthesising them with your existing knowledge and truly understanding.

Finally, the deepest level is teaching a subject. You not only have to very clearly explain the material, you also have to be able to phrase it in a variety of ways, answer questions and engage your audience. This requires a deep understanding and a great deal of mental processing. I am always tired after delivering a full day’s training course. I probably won’t have expended much physical energy but will be mentally drained. Dr Marian Diamond, Professor of Neuroanatomy at the University of California at Berkley said, “Each one teach one”, when referring to the ideal educational system. By getting children to teach their peers after initially grasping a topic, it greatly
embeds and consolidates their knowledge.

Follow this link to retain what you have just learnt.!

Influencing those who influence you


  1. Offer all the information that you have about a given scenario or issue to those you want to influence and be willing to adjust your point of view and map of the world.
  2. Perception is projection.
  3. Use the Question – Situation – Complication – Answer technique for written communications.

Sources:From Dianne Lowther; Harvard Business School Memo; RAF; Minto Principal.

There is a presupposition of NLP that tells us that ‘people always make the best choice based on the information available’. So to enable other people to see how right your plan is, you have to give them access to the same information as you.

To put it simply, you have to manage the available information so that whoever looks at it, the best choice indicated by the facts, is the one you thought of! If you are prepared to line up all of your information that points in the direction of your view of the Right Thing, you can also invite your colleagues to add to that information. They can contribute what they know, what they believe and what they think. Then, you make a collective decision based on ALL the data, not just one person’s. This way, you avoid arguments, you’re not manipulating anyone and the decisions made are the result of real collaboration.

Provided you’re willing to adjust your point of view, this is a great way to persuade people to a joint decision.

I think this may be the basis of the Harvard Business Review Memo Model.

To influence your boss then you need him to switch, for just a small window of opportunity from Internally Referenced to Externally Referenced! In addition if you can combine this with a knowledge of his Convincer Strategy you may increase your chances. Remember there are two  elements to a convincer strategy, one relates to the way the information is presented (VAK), the other is the time factor and number of times he needs to receive the massage.

Royal Air force:

  1. Brief
  2. Communications – two way plan.
  3. Backup plan – what if stuff goes wrong.
  4. Debrief

I like the reminder that stuff does go wrong, combined with an agreement about communications. This should also be referenced to their personal preference for VAK. In a group situation cover all VAK bases.


Remember people don’t get top jobs unless they are actually pretty smart at making decisions and figuring out who to consult and who not to consult. So make yourself a trusted source of good quality information and your time will come.

 Maps and perception is projection

” in any human experience there’s more than one way of experiencing what goes on. We live in our own vision of reality not some kind of objective single point reality!”

” ….. if what you believe about other people becomes your experience and you are not getting what you want then it may be time to take stock about what you believe about other people and change where required”

Fruitbat 1957 – 2013 and still going strong!

Written influence and information

Holly Weeks  “business readers are content driven, time pressed and searching for solutions”

  1. Question – this can be implied or spelt out with as much attention grabbing as required.
  2. Situation – a quick factual sketch that serves to focus the direction of the reader.
  3. Complication – why you are writing the report or memo, the issue that has arisen.
  4. The answer – your response to the question and your solution to the complication.

Content should be “Concise” which means as tight as possible and complete. Start your case for the solution by drawing out the pyramid of the answer. Complete the cascade from any angle.The story that you tell should be from Top Down as in the diagram – click to see a larger image.





Off the cuff speech


  1. Prepare the structure not the content.
  2. Present just three main points.
  3. Practice on any random subject to get the idea.

Resources: 4Mat; Hypnosis Downloads; Andrew Hardman

The key to giving unprepared talks isn’t having any number of topics ‘stored up’ in your head ready to be rolled out when the occasion demands. The key is getting very familiar with, and really comfortable with, the essential structure of a good short talk, and then practicing threading any topic that you might briefly speak about into that structure.

In a nutshell, the essential talk or presentation consists of:

  • the introduction – you tell them what you’re going to tell them and how you are going to do this
  • the talk – you tell them and or show them three main points
  • the recap – you tell them what you’ve told them

This structure is extremely flexible and allows you to concentrate on the bit in the middle that really matters – the talk – and create it out of only three or four ‘main points’. ‘Making three points’ is a far less scary proposition than ‘giving an unrehearsed speech’.

The 4Mat principal is based on :

  • Why
  • What
  • How
  • Where else and what if?

In the Thomas Cook suggested outline they follow the following guideline and refer to it as “like reading the News”:

  • Tell them what you are going to tell them.
  • Tell them / show them the news.
  • Tell them what you’ve told them.


Breathing is the Breath of life: Huna and Yoga breathing techniques

Breathing is the Breath of life

Here’s a collection of some stuff on the Breath of life. It all comes from the Hawaiian Huna Tradition. I was first introduced to it during my Practitioner Course at the Northern School of NLP where we looked at the simple breathing cycle which you can find here. I am not trained in any Huna traditions and simply offer this as a space where you may wish to view a collection of ways to think about breathing. My initial interest in breathing was sparked by my work on Aerophobia because relaxation at the airport prior to a flight really helps.

Resources: Pamela Turner; Vince;

Basic Cycle of Breath


There are four phases to the breath:

  1. Inhalation
  2. Pause
  3. Exhalation
  4. Pause again before your next inhalation.

By controlling these phases you can activate and increase different energies to support you in whatever you need to do. As you begin to understand how this works, you will realize how powerful and useful this simple technique can be. I learned this Huna breathing technique in a training from the Huna Research Institute.

Looking at the picture, we see four elements and the four phases of the breath. The way to increase one energy in particular is to change the ratio of the breath.

An even ratio would be 1:1:1:1. Breathing in this way you would take a slow deep breath inhaling for one count, pausing for one count, exhaling for one count, pausing for one count before your next breath. Always place the tip of your tongue on the roof of your mouth when breathing intentionally like this. If each breath was 4 seconds, then you would inhale for four seconds, pause for four seconds, exhale for four seconds, pause for four seconds. Everyone is different. Perhaps you’re more comfortable with a three second breath, or two, or five. Find what works best for you.

So, breathing in an even ratio of 1:1:1:1 would be balancing.

If you want to increase your energy, you increase the Fire element 2:0:1:0. This is known as the fire breath and would increase the fire element in you, energizing you. I also think it would increase your metabolism and burn blood sugar, but that is for you to find out.

If you want to calm yourself, use 1:1:2:0. This type of breathing is often used in Yoga and has been called the Breath of Enlightenment. It is very relaxing.

To ground yourself, increase the Earth element 1:1:1:2.

Practice with different ratios and combinations to find out what works best for you. As with anything Huna, you are the one who decides what works best for you not someone else.
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 Relax Your Racing Mind 

We often find ourselves far from our center, far from our Self, with our thoughts dragging us everywhere but home. It is not onlly frustrating but stressful, when your mind starts running around like a wild horse and it can be very difficult to stop the run-away process.

So, how to get out of that racing state and get back to your calm center?  How wonderful to be able to quiet your mind when it gets into that repetitive, racing, out-of-control state. Here is a quick way to do this that you can do anytime, anywhere during your day.

This is a very simple technique I developed, but as you will see, it’s very effective and even thouugh it is simple, there is alot going on to put you in the present moment and relax your racing mind!

The Technique

  1. Start to breathe deeply and slowly.
  2. Create a gentle smile.
  3. Ask yourself, “I wonder what my next thought will be?”
  4. Watch for it and listen.
  5. When the next thought comes up, just acknowledge it, then ask yourself again, “I wonder what my next thought will be?”
  6. Repeat

Why this technique  works so well!

Breathing slowly and deliberately – As your breathing slows down, your mind slows down.As you relax, you go from beta (left brain dominate state) to alpha, a more relaxed holistic state that connects body, mind and spirit.You are anchoring the quiet mind state to your deep breathing. As you keep repeating this, it gets easier and easier to quiet your mind because your body remembers what to do when you breathe deeply..

Creating a gentle smile – When you move your muscles into a smiling position, your body knows this as content or happy. It doesn’t care why you’re smiling, it just recognises the muscle movement. It responds by releasing endorphins that make you feel calm and happy.

When you ask yourself “I wonder what my next thought will be?” – You are setting your intent to watch your thoughts, not be them. You are wondering, just a gentle curiosity that doesn’t create resistance. You are identifying with your observer, your True Self, just watching in a peaceful, non-judgmental way. You are in the present moment, in your power.

This simple technique is very effective and will bring you inner peace whenever you need it. It’s very useful when you can’t get to sleep or when you want to defuse anger, and the more you practice it, the easier it gets! Let me know how this works for you!
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Piko Piko is an ancient breathing style used for centering and focus.

It literally means “center to center”. In Huna healing there are many energy centers, or piko points. The two most powerful are the navel and the crown of the head. The navel represents you physical source and lifeline while the crown symbolizes your connection with the aumakua, or spiritual realm.

You may perform the breathing pattern seated or standing. The process is as follows:

1. Get in a relaxed position
2. Put one hand on the crown of your head, and the other on your navel. You can use either hand for the positions.
3. Begin your deep breathing. Inhale while focusing on the crown of your head and exhale with attention on your navel. The hands will help you focus.
4. Continue until you feel energized. This could be anywhere from two-ten minutes.
5. You are now ready to ask questions of your spirit or make a prayer for manifestations in your life.
6. Close by thanking and blessing your spiritual source.
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One meaning of Hakalau is, “To stare at as in meditation and to allow to spread out.” If you’ve never tried it before, right now, this technique can be a real eye opener. Try it.

  1. Ho’ohaka: Just pick a spot on the wall to look at, preferably above eye level, so that your field of vision seems to bump up against your eyebrows, but the eyes are not so high so as to cut off the field of vision.
  2. Kuu: “To let go.” As you stare at this spot, just let your mind go loose, and focus all of your attention on the spot.
  3. Lau: “To spread out.” Notice that within a matter of moments, your vision begins to spread out, and you see more in the peripheral than you do in the central part of your vision.
  4. Hakalau: Now, pay attention to the peripheral. In fact, pay more attention to the peripheral than to the central part of your vision.
  5. Ho’okohi: Stay in this state for as long as you can. Notice how it feels. Notice the ecstatic feelings that begin to come to you as you continue the state.

Hakalau is the means, then, in the Hawaiian system for entering a rapid trance state at will.

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Breath and Breathing:
Key to the Unlimited
Power of Huna
by Rev. James Vinson Wingo, DD

Life is but a series of breaths. Breath is Life. We can live a long time without eating, a couple days without drinking, but life without breath is measured in minutes. Something so essential deserves our attention. Breath is the most important of all the bodily functions, in fact all the other bodily functions depend on breath.

As much as we are dependent on breath for life, so are we largely dependent on correct, healthy breathing habits for continued vitality and freedom from disease.

One of the first things we learn in Huna is that by controlling our breathing we can increase energy and vitality. On the other hand, incorrect, careless breathing leads to decreased vitality and opens us up to disease.

Civilization has changed our manner of breathing. Very few people breath correctly in today’s world. The results can be seen in poor posture, contracted chests, stooped shoulders, and the large amount of respiratory disease.

The foundation of health is a healthy bloodstream. Breathing is the way you fully oxygenate the body and thereby stimulate the electrical process of every cell in the body.

Breathing also stimulates the flow of the lymph fluid which contains white blood cells. The lymph system is the body’s sewage system. Every cell is surrounded by lymph. We have four times as much lymph fluid than blood! The blood carries oxygen and nutrients to the capillaries which diffuse them into the lymph fluid around each cell. The cells take only what they need and excrete toxins. Dead cells and other toxins must be eliminated by the lymph system, and the lymph system is activated by deep breathing!.

Whereas the blood system has a pump called the heart, the lymph system moves only through deep breathing and muscular movement.

Not only does physical health depend on correct breathing, our mental power, happiness, self-control, clear-sightedness, morals, and spiritual growth are dependent upon breath. Entire schools of Oriental Philosophy have been founded upon the “Science of Breath.”

In Huna we practice breathing exercises which allow us to gain control of our bodies and our selves, enabling us to send mana to any organ or area of thought (thought-form) to energize it and thereby strengthen ourselves and others. By controlled breathing we can not only cure disease, but also practically do away with fear, worry, and the baser emotions.

Although breathing is something we do naturally and automatically it is important to examine just how breath functions.
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The Mechanics Of Breathing

Breathing is accomplished through the elastic movements of the lungs and the activities of the thoracic cavity in which they are contained. The thorax is the portion of the body between the neck and abdomen. The thoracic cavity is occupied mainly by the heart and lungs. It is bound by the spine, the ribs and their cartilage, the breastbone and by the diaphragm below. It is more than simply the chest.

There are twenty-four ribs, twelve on each side which emerge from the spine. The upper seven pairs are called “true ribs” because they are fastened directly to the breastbone. The lower five pairs are called “floating ribs” because they are not directly attached. The upper two of them are fastened by cartilage to the other ribs and the lower three have free ends.

In respiration the ribs are moved by muscular layers known as the intercostal muscles. The diaphragm separates the thorax from the abdominal cavity.

In breathing the muscles expand the lungs so that a vacuum is created so that air rushes in (obeying that well-known law of physics). The whole process depends on the respiratory muscles. Without the muscles the lungs cannot expand.

So, in essence, the science of breathing relies on the proper control and development of these muscles resulting in the ability to attain the maximum degree of lung expansion and to secure the greatest amount of life-giving properties of air to the system. Proper breathing exercises allow us to efficiently accumulate the maximum amount of mana. This is essential to health and to the practice of Huna.

Categories Of Breathing

Upper Breathing. This is the most common method of breathing in Western society. This is also the worst type of breathing and is the source of many of our problems. One breathing this way elevates the ribs, collarbone and shoulders while drawing the abdomen in. The abdomen pulls up and pushes against the diaphragm, raising it.

In Upper Breathing only the upper part of the chest and lungs are used. This is the smallest area and so only the smallest amount of air enters the lungs. Also, because the diaphragm is being raised, there can be no expansion in that direction. Go back and review the mechanics of breathing. It will become quite obvious that Upper Breathing uses a maximum amount of effort and energy to obtain a minimum amount of benefit.

Upper breathing wastes energy. People who breath this way (most of our modern culture) are weak and unhealthy. Even athletes who should know better tend to breath this way and suffer because of it. Respiratory diseases and vocal problems can be directly traced to this manner of breathing which strains the delicate organs and results in harsh voices. People who breath this way often resort to mouth breathing which increases their problems.

Mid Breathing. This method of breathing is similar to Upper Breathing and only slightly better. In Mid Breathing the diaphragm is pushed up and the abdomen drawn in while the chest is raised somewhat and the chest partially expanded. The results are much the same.

Deep Breathing. This method of breathing is far better than either of the two preceding methods. Deep Breathing is well known among those who recognize the importance of breath in health and meditation. Many systems of breathing have been built around Deep Breathing. Many have benefited and much money has been made on Deep Breathing. It is, however, only a part of proper breathing. Deep Breathing must be understood before we can proceed to Complete Breathing.

You saw that in Upper and Mid Breathing the diaphragm is raised. The diaphragm is the great partition muscle separating the chest from the abdomen and its contents. At rest the diaphragm is like a dome above the abdomen. When it is used, the diaphragm is lowered to press down on the abdomen and force it out.

In Deep Breathing the diaphragm is used and the lungs are able to move more freely. This has led some to tout Deep Breathing as the best method as it is definitely superior to the previous methods.

The problem is that in none of these three methods do the lungs become completely filled with air. Even in Deep Breathing only a portion of the lungs are filled at best. Upper Breathing fills only the upper portion of the lungs. Mid fills only the middle and some of the upper part. Deep Breathing fills only the lower and middle parts.

It should be evident that a method which fills the entire lung space will be of the greatest value in allowing us to absorb the greatest quantity of oxygen and to generate the most mana. The Complete Breath is the best method known.

Complete Breathing. This method of breathing combines all the good points of Upper, Mid, and Deep Breathing while eliminating the objectionable features of each. It brings into play the entire breathing apparatus, every part of the lungs, every air-cell, and every respiratory muscle. The entire respiratory system responds to Complete Breathing and the maximum amount of benefit is derived from the minimum expenditure of energy. The chest cavity expands to its normal limits in all directions and every part of the breathing mechanism performs its natural function.

In Complete Breathing all the respiratory muscles are completely called into play. The other types of breathing use only a portion of these muscles. This means that the space for the lungs to expand increases and the muscles give support to the organs as needed. The diaphragm is under complete control and is able to function properly.

In the Complete Breath the lower ribs are pulled slightly downward by the diaphragm while other muscles hold them in place and the intercostal muscles pull them outward. This combined action increases the mid chest cavity to its maximum capacity. The upper ribs are lifted and forced outward by the intercostal muscles, increasing the capacity of the upper chest to its maximum capacity
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The Kahuna “Complete Breathing” technique

Complete Breathing should not be forced. This is a return to nature. Native people and infants breath this way naturally and that should be our goal. Once you have learned Complete Breathing it is not necessary to completely fill the lungs with every inhalation. This is an exercise for developing healthy habits and to be used several times a day in a controlled manner. With regular practice this manner of breathing will become a habit.

(1) Stand or sit erect. Inhale steadily through the nostrils. Fill the lower part of the lungs first by descending the diaphragm and thereby putting pressure on the lower abdominal organs, pushing the front wall of the abdomen forward. Next fill the middle part of the lungs by expanding the chest, pushing out the lower ribs and the breastbone. Finally fill the upper part of the lungs by protruding the upper part of the chest and thereby lifting the chest and the upper seven pairs of ribs. During this final movement the lower abdomen will be brought in slightly. This movement supports the lungs and helps fill the upper part of the lungs.

This breath is presented as three distinct movements, but the inhalation should be continuous, even, and fluid by expanding the entire chest, from the lowered diaphragm to the highest point of the chest in a uniform movement. Try to achieve an even, rolling action as you practice.

(2) Hold the breath for a few seconds.

(3) Exhale slowly through the mouth. As you do so hold the chest firmly in place, draw the abdomen in a little and lift it up slowly as the air leaves. When exhalation is complete you may relax the chest and abdomen. This requires a little practice at first, but it can easily become automatic.

Practice Complete Breathing in front of a mirror if possible with your hands over your abdomen so that you can feel the all movements.

Rhythm. Once you have the basic structure of Complete Breathing mastered you can begin rhythmic breathing. Try the Ha breath. Ha means four and it means breath. It is also the sound you should make when exhaling during the mana generating stage of the Ha Rite.

The four is divided into a ratio of 1:1:2 for the basic Complete Breath. This means you inhale for a count of one, hold the breath for a count of one and then exhale for a count of two. You hold the breath to allow full oxygenation of the blood and to activate the lymph system and you should take twice as long to exhale because that is when you are eliminating toxins.

It’s like Huna people have a reason for doing everything!

Use your heartbeat to establish a natural rhythm. You may want to start inhaling for a count of four beats, hold for four, and then exhale for eight. As you develop you can raise the number of beats for longer, slower breathing. This takes time. I started with a four count and now average an inhalation time of about thirty seconds, holding for thirty, and exhaling for sixty. Trained Yogis can take several minutes for one breath. Your breathing will improve with increased lung capacity and there’s no need to overdo it.

The Complete Breath is the foundation for all breathing. It should become your natural way of breathing, though as mentioned before you need not take it to the extreme with every breath. You should become comfortable with the Complete Breath, doing it naturally and evenly before proceeding with the following breathing exercises.

Breathing Exercises

What follows are some Yoga breathing exercises which when combined with Huna and Complete Breathing with contribute to great health, wealth, wisdom, and happiness.
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The Kahuna “Cleansing Breath”

This breathing exercise ventilates and cleans the lungs. It stimulates the cells and tones the respiratory organs. You may conclude the other breathing exercises with the Cleansing Breath as it refreshes the entire system. It can be used after speaking or singing to rest the repertory system.

(1) Inhale a Complete Breath.

(2) Hold the breath a few seconds.

(3) Pucker the lips as if your were whistling without swelling the cheeks. Exhale a little air through the small opening with considerable force, stop for a moment (retaining the air), and then exhale a little more. Repeat this exhalation pattern until the air is completely out.

The Cleansing breath can be used any time you are tired. I use this breath any time I have been around smoke or other air pollutants.
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The Chanting Breath

This technique can be used by speakers, singers, or anyone to improve their voice. This exercise provides power, control, and clarity. This is to be used only as an exercise and not as a regulate form of breathing.

(1) Inhale a Complete Breath very slowly and steadily taking as much time as possible for inhalation.

(2) Hold the breath a few seconds.

(3) Exhale quickly in one vigorous breath with the mouth wide open. This should be done instantly and your mouth should be wide enough to insert four fingers vertically between the teeth, or as close to this ideal as you can comfortably get.

(4) Rest the lungs with the Cleansing Breath.
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The Oxygenizing Breath

This breathing exercise is designed to stimulate the air cells in the lungs. Do not overdo it. You will likely feel dizzy the first few times you do this. If you smoke or have smoked, do this only under supervision because you can pass out from the incredible rush of oxygen which your body is not used to. When I first tried this exercise I was about fourteen, spent hours each day riding (and racing) bicycles, and even I got dizzy the first couple times. Go easy and if you do get dizzy, walk around a little and discontinue the exercise for a while.

(1) Stand erect with your hands on your chest.

(2) Inhale a complete breath very gradually and slowly. As you do, gently tap your chest with the finger tips. Move your hands constantly so as to stimulate every inch of the lungs.

(3) When the lungs are filled, hold the breath and pat the chest with your palms. As you progress you can pat your chest more and more firmly.

(4) Practice the Cleansing Breath.

This exercise is very stimulating to the whole body. Many of the air cells in the lungs become inactive over time from incorrect breathing, smoking, etc. This exercise when done regularly can stimulate those cells back into activity over time. It is a very worthwhile exercise.
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Primal Needs

Courtesy of Uncommon Knowledge with a touch of copy and pasting!


  • The importance of remembering that people have conscious andunconscious minds.
  • The fact that sometimes people don’t know their own true motivations and feelings about things so the conscious mind comes up with a theory or story that is at odds with their real unconscious motivation. You can look for congruence between what people say and what they actually do and how they communicate non-verbally. Remember that leakage of true feelings from the unconscious mind may take the form of incredibly brief ‘micro-expressions’. So stay alert.
  • Peoples’ true feelings are often communicated metaphorically – remember the coughing psychiatrist I mentioned.
  • And, most important of all, how so much human behaviour is driven by unconscious attempts to meet the primal emotional needs which each and every human being shares, and how if these needs aren’t met healthily they can cause people to act in all kinds of weird and not so wonderful ways.

The ‘primal needs’ which need to be met to avoid psychological and physical distress are:

1. The need to give and receive attention

Attention is a form of nutrition and without the right quality and quantity we will suffer mental and even physical distress and illness. It’s vital to understand the importance of how much and of what quality attention we give and receive in life, if we want to feel happier and have the space in our minds to focus on long term dreams and goals.

2. Physical needs such as nutrition, sleep and exercise.

We evolved to move a lot, eat simple nutritious foods (not grains and sugar) and sleep a fair amount too. If you physical needs are not met properly, you won’t feel right emotionally.

3. The need for purpose, goals and meaning

We all need to feel life has meaning and that we have purpose. Some activities (such as ones that help others and/or develop new skills) will feel inherently more meaningful than others (such as hours of TV watching or doing work that doesn’t inspire you).

4. A sense of community and making a contribution

Research(1) (2) has found that social connection is a boon to both physical and emotional health. We evolved to connect to others and be part of a group. Low self esteem and anxiety may prevent us from connecting to groups until we stop feeling like that.

5. The need for challenge and creativity

We all need to feel stretched (rather than stressed) because when life becomes too easy or repetitous then it loses meaning for us (see need number 3). Creativity can be mis-directed as when people misuse their imaginations to worry. We encourage the productive enhancement of creative resources through our downloads.

6. The need for intimacy

We need to feel there is at least one person who accepts us and cares about us unconditionally “warts and all”. To truly feel close to someone is a huge life enhancer. Physical intimacy (not just sex) is important for health and happiness too. Some people need to learn to relax with intimacy so they can start to fulfil this need.

7. The need to feel a sense of control.

When we feel powerless to make a difference and to influence at least some events we become vulnerable to all kinds of fears, anxiety and also depression. Knowing how to feel more in control and how to relax during the times when all you can do is wait and see is a vital emotional strength – a strength that can be developed.

8. The need for a sense of status.

Status is important (it even affects our hormonal levels). It’s not that we all need to feel better than others, rather it’s important for physical and mental health, to feel we have a recognizable, valuable and valued role within a community. Shyness, lack of confidence, self destructive habits can all block us from attaining a healthy status in life.

9. The need for safety and security

We all need to feel safe in our environment so we can enjoy life and grow. Our environment may be safe but if we don’t feel safe on the inside (because of panic attacks, phobias or trauma from the past) then this vital need will still remain uncompleted until we learn to feel safer on the inside.

Many Needs, One Life

It may seem that a life that meets all of these needs would be intolerably busy. But of course, one activity can meet many needs. Charity work for example, could be said to fulfil 1, 3, 4 and 5, and could contribute to 6 and 7.

Walking with a friend as a pastime might go towards 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6.

Generally, what this suggests, and what has been borne out by recent research, is that a more complex life is a more healthy one. Then if one area of life fails or is taken away from you, your basic needs are maintained, at least in part, by those that survive.

So the message is…

If your progress through life has gone a bit awry for you or a friend, check if there is petrol in the car, and that the battery is charged before going to a mechanic to have the engine taken apart!

From survivors of torture, to someone losing their job, those who are able to maintain a sense of control somewhere in their life fare the best. This is why having a variety of interests and activities is so important.

If these needs are not met, people become unhappy and may become ill.

When they are met adequately, we feel fulfilled and have space in our minds for projects that extend beyond the immediate gratification of instant emotional fulfilment.

This is one of the most important things you’ll ever learn regarding psychology.

If people are not meeting their emotional needs – perhaps because they are not even really consciously aware of them – then much of their behaviour will be an unconscious drive toward fulfilling those emotional needs regardless of what they think or say they are doing.

Much strange or so-called ‘difficult’ behaviour becomes readily understandable once we consider what need that behaviour might be clumsily – and unconsciously – trying to meet.

Research References

(1) The toxic effects of loneliness are confirmed by insurance statistics and numerous scientific studies. For example, one study of 972 Johns Hopkins medical students used results of personality tests to classify the students into one of five types. Thirty years later, when they checked health status, they found that students classified as ‘loners’ had sixteen times more cancer than people who vented their emotions to friends. Study after study has shown that feeling connected with other people is extremely important for physical and mental health. Suicide, alcoholism and mental illness rates are much higher among people living alone.

(2) Researcher Oscar Ybarra and his colleagues at the University of Michigan explored the possibility that social interaction improves mental functioning. In a series of related studies, they tested the participants’ level of cognitive functioning, comparing it to the frequency of participants’ social interactions. They found that people who engaged in social interaction displayed higher levels of cognitive performance than the control group. Social interaction aided intellectual performance. “Social interaction,” the authors suggest, “helps to exercise people’s minds. People reap cognitive benefits from socializing.” They speculate that social interaction ‘exercises’ cognitive processes that are measured on intellectual tasks. “It is possible,” the authors conclude, “that as people engage socially and mentally with others, they receive relatively immediate cognitive boosts.”

Convincer Strategy In Selling

Main contributors: Dianne Lowther; Shelle Rose Charvet; Andrew Hardman



  • See: must see data to get convinced
  • Hear: must hear data to get convinced
  • Read: must read data to get convinced
  • Do: must do it to get convinced


  • Number of Examples: use numbers
  • Automatic: assume, benefit of the doubt
  • Consistent: try it, each time you use it, daily, every time, consistent
  • Period of Time: match period of time

If you want to convince someone to buy, to authorise, to agree or to change, wouldn’t it be useful to know how that person can be convinced most easily One of the greatest benefits of this can be in reducing your stress. If you need to influence other people then it helps to understand how people become convinced.

There are two elements to a convincer strategy, one relates to the way the information is presented, the other is the time factor.

The first is the convincer representational system or how the person has to have the information represented in order to be convinced: Do they have to see it, hear it or experience it for themselves? Think about this for yourself – suppose you have a new colleague. How would you know that the new person was good at the job – would you have to see them do it, hear about it, or perhaps work alongside them and experience it? If you have to see it to be convinced that the person is good at their job, then chances are you also have to see it to be convinced of anything else. Doubtless, the person who coined the phrase “I’ll believe it when I see it” had a visual convincer. Someone with an auditory convincer has to hear it to be convinced. The person with a kinaesthetic convincer needs to experience for themselves.

The convincer rep system accounts for the irritating phenomenon of people who receive memos or emails but don’t act on them until someone calls them on the ‘phone and asks. (Auditory convincer) Or the people who agree to your proposal outlined in a meeting but do nothing until they see it confirmed in writing. (Visual convincer) And the customer who has listened to your explanation but would much prefer it if you could fax something to her to look at! (Visual again)

The second aspect of convincer strategies is the convincer demonstration. Going back to that new colleague, how often does the person have to demonstrate their competence for you to be convinced? Answers to this question will usually fit one of four categories:


The person with an automatic convincer will assume that the new colleague is competent unless they demonstrate otherwise. You can convince this person quite easily, but so can everyone else! They are easy to sell to and readily give their support for new ideas. They are probably the ‘early adopters’ of new technology. Being easily convinced, they can change their minds quickly and don’t always stay committed to a decision once they have made it. Interestingly, lots of sales people have automatic convincers and find it difficult to understand why other people are not as easily convinced as they are themselves.

Number of times

This person has to have the demonstration repeated several times before they are convinced. If you’re selling to someone like this, either show them the product this number of times, or show them this number of alternatives. For the customer services team I was working with this knowledge made a big difference. Their comments changed from “Why did I have to repeat myself FOUR times to that man – is he stupid???” to “I’ve just had someone on the ‘phone with a four times convincer” – imagine how much this reduced their stress. As a general rule, the higher the number of times a person has to run their strategy in order to be convinced, the more committed they will be to the decision once it is made. Persuading them to change their mind will also involve the same number of repetitions to achieve the necessary conviction.

There is potentially a shortcut to this, although it will only work if you have good rapport with the person. Suppose you need to convince someone who has a five-times convincer but you don’t have time to go through your proposal five times. After the second time, you say something like “If I’ve explained this to you once I must have explained it five times, isn’t it time you made a decision?” As I said, it only works if you have good rapport…

Period of time

This person needs a period of time to be convinced. It was probably someone with this style who invented the ‘trial period’. It might be a few hours or it might be months, but this person always needs this period time to be convinced. If you’re seeking their support for your project and they say ‘I’ll think about it’ ask them how long they’d like before you meet again. Don’t assume that this is a polite way of saying no.

Again, there is a possibility of a shortcut. Suppose you want to convince someone with a period of time convincer of three months. You present your proposal and they tell you they need to think about it. Do you wait three months? Unless you also have a three months convincer, probably not. So, if you contact the person again after a few weeks, you can open the discussion with a comment such as, “I’ve been so busy since we last discussed this proposal, it feels like at least 3 months since we spoke”. Again, it only works if you have good rapport but for those of us not endowed with the patience to wait three months for an answer it can really speed up the process!


This person is actually never convinced. They require repeated demonstration of your competence or the quality of your idea or your product. Nothing you can say or do will convince them. These people make tough managers, as you’ll only ever be as good as your last result in their eyes. Paradoxically, they can sometimes they end up appearing to be inconsistent inasmuch as they may strongly support someone they believe to be doing well, but then if that person fails in any way to meet their standards, they will cease to support them and look for a new champion. Over a period of time it can appear that different individuals are ‘flavour of the month’ for a time, before falling out of favour and making way for the next one. If you want to sell to someone with a consistent convincer, acknowledge that you can’t convince them. One of the ladies in the bridalwear shop had a customer with a consistent convincer. She eventually told her “I know that I can’t convince you that this is the perfect dress for you. You’ll only know for sure when you’re walking down the aisle in it on your wedding day”. She made the sale AND the customer was happy. Treat as a skeptic and try future pacing.

To make full use of convincers, it helps to know your own convincer strategy. If you have, for example, a three time convincer and you make a sale to a person with an automatic convincer, you might not be convinced that they have really bought unless they tell you 3 times! Save them the effort and tell yourself three times – it works just as well.

When I got a verbal face to face order from a major UK Theme Park for a cleaning machine, effectively I didn’t believe the guy because I was more bothered about making sure the equipment was correct for his situation. Perhaps my convincer number was different to his Automatic.

Of course, the main piece of information you’ll need to be able to make use of all of the above, is the convincer strategy of the person you want to influence. Most of them won’t know themselves and even if they did, in the normal course of business it wouldn’t be appropriate ask! However, most people will tell you, if you know what to listen for.

For example, the customer services team quickly found that the way a person described their problem often gave some clues as to their convincer strategy. After all, they must be convinced that they have a problem! The kind of things customers said varied from “It hasn’t been working properly for about a month, I knew it was time I got some advice” (period of time – one month) to “I’ve tried it 3 times and it just won’t work” (number of times – three) and “I’ve never had any trouble with it and then today it completely packed up” (automatic).

By listening carefully to the way a customer describes the problem, it’s possible to discover their convincer strategy and then use it to convince the same person that you have a solution for them.

Questions from Words That Change Minds Mobile Site:

  • Q: How do you know when a supplier is good at their job? (See, Hear, Read, Do)
  • A: They have to be able to deliver fresh products really quickly, certainly within 24 hours. (Do)
  • Q: How many times would you have to get rush deliveries within 24 hours to be convinced that they were a great supplier?
  • A: 3 or 4 I guess, why do you ask?

Template questions:

  • How would know if someone else bought a great ….? (See, Hear, Read, Do)
  • How many times would you have to (insert answer from above) to be convinced they bought a great…..? (Number of examples, Automatic, Consistent, Period of Time)
  • How do you know a colleague is good at their work? (See / Hear / Read / Do)
  • How many times do you have to (insert answer from above) to be convinced they are good at their work? (Number of Examples, Automatic, Consistent, Period of Time)